Bone marrow transplant (BMT) also called as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is the procedure that is used to replace the unhealthy bone marrow with new and healthy bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue inside the bones that is responsible for the production of blood cells. There are several medical conditions due to which the bone marrow become dysfunctional and therefore needs to be replaced. Further there are multiple types of Bone Marrow Transplants based on the donor of the bone marrow or stem cells.
Allogenic bone marrow transplant (BMT) is typically recommended to treat certain medical conditions where the bone marrow is dysfunctional.
Autologous bone marrow transplant (High dose chemotherapy + autologous stem cell rescue) is recommended to treat where we need to give high dose of chemotherapy to treat underlying disease following which autologous harvested bone marrow is given as rescue. The indications include:
Autologous bone marrow transplant (High Dose Chemotherapy & Autologous Stem Cells Rescue) – The stem cells are taken from the patient prior to procedure, frozen & stored and then re-introduced in the patient’s system after the patient has received chemotherapy. This type of bone marrow transplant is typically used for cancers like neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, Wilm’s tumor, lymphomas, multiple myeloma etc and also for autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis etc.
Allogenic transplant – In case the donor is other than the patient, the transplant is termed as allogenic. Depending on the donor, it can be further divided into:
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