Immunodeficiency Disorders

What is
Immunodeficiency Disorders?

Immunodeficiency disorders prevent your body from fighting infections and diseases. This type of disorder makes it easier for you to catch viruses and bacterial infections.

Immunodeficiency disorders are either congenital or acquired. A congenital, or primary, disorder is one you were born with. Acquired, or secondary, disorders you get later in life. Acquired disorders are more common than congenital disorders.

What are the different types of immunodeficiency disorders?

An immune deficiency disease occurs when the immune system is not working properly. If you are born with a deficiency or if there is a genetic cause, it is called primary immunodeficiency disease. There are more than 100 primary immunodeficiency disorders.

Examples of primary immunodeficiency disorders include:

  • X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)
  • Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)
  • Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is known as alymphocytosis or “boy in a bubble” disease

Signs of an immunodeficiency disorder

Each disorder has unique symptoms that can be frequent or chronic. Some of these symptoms can include:

  • Sinus Infections
  • Colds
  • Diarrhea
  • Pneumonia
  • Yeast Infections

If these problems don’t respond to treatment or you don’t completely get better over time, your doctor might test you for an immunodeficiency disorder.

How are immunodeficiency disorders treated?

Treatment for immunodeficiency disorders commonly includes antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, medication and immunoglobulin therapy. Most of the primary immunodeficiency disorder diseases can be permanently cured with HSCT.

Types of bleeding disorders

Bleeding disorders can be inherited or acquired. Inherited disorders are passed down through genetics. Acquired disorders can develop or spontaneously occur later in life. Some bleeding disorders can result in severe bleeding following an accident or injury. In other disorders, heavy bleeding can happen suddenly and for no reason.

There are numerous different bleeding disorders, but the following are the most common ones:

  • Hemophilia A and B are conditions that occur when there are low levels of clotting factors in your blood. It causes heavy or unusual bleeding into the joints. Though hemophilia is rare, it can have life-threatening complications.
  • Factor II, V, VII, X, or XII deficiencies are bleeding disorders related to blood clotting problems or abnormal bleeding problems.
  • Von Willebrand’s disease is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. It develops when the blood lacks von Willebrand factor, which helps the blood to clot.

What are the symptoms of a bleeding disorder?

The symptoms can vary depending on the specific type of bleeding disorder. However, the main signs include:

  • unexplained and easy bruising
  • heavy menstrual bleeding
  • frequent nosebleeds
  • excessive bleeding from small cuts or an injury
  • bleeding into joints

How are bleeding disorders treated?

Treatment options vary depending on the type of bleeding disorder and its severity. Though treatments can’t cure bleeding disorders, they can help relieve the symptoms associated with certain disorders.

Iron supplementation

Your doctor may prescribe iron supplements to replenish the amount of iron in your body if you have significant blood loss. A low iron level can result in iron deficiency anemia. This condition can make you feel weak, tired, and dizzy. You may need a blood transfusion if symptoms don’t improve with iron supplementation.

Blood transfusion

A blood transfusion replaces any lost blood with blood taken from a donor. The donor blood has to match your blood type to prevent complications. This procedure can only be done in the hospital.

Other treatments

Some bleeding disorders may be treated with topical products or nasal sprays. Other disorders, including hemophilia, can be treated with factor replacement therapy. This involves injecting clotting factor concentrates into your bloodstream. These injections can prevent or control excessive bleeding.

You can also get fresh frozen plasma transfusions if you lack certain clotting factors. Fresh frozen plasma contains factors V and VIII, which are two important proteins that help with blood clotting. These transfusions must be done in a hospital.

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